Sunday, September 22, 2019
Practical Business Analysis Essay 1. Re-do all problems in Practice Problem Set 1. 2. Dollar Car Rental Co. was originally named Dollar a Day Car Rental because they charged $1.00 per day to rent a car, plus a charge per mile driven. Many customers complained that the odometers on DollarÃ¢â¬â¢s cars recorded more miles than were actually driven. To evaluate these complaints you take a random sample of 6 DollarÃ¢â¬â¢s cars, drive them on a carefully measured 100-mile course, and record the miles driven as registered by the odometers. The results are 100, 105, 109, 102, 107, and 101, with the sample standard deviation around 3.578. a. Using these sample results, construct a 95% confidence interval for the population mean miles recorded by all Dollar cars for a 100-mile trip. b. As a legal consultant hired by the group of the customers who complained about the odometers, do you have enough evidence to support your clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ claim? State your hypotheses (H0 vs. Ha), rejection region and both statistical and substantive conclusions. 3. The grades on the final examination given in a large organic chemistry class are normally distributed with a mean of 72 and a standard deviation of 8. The instructor of this class wants to assign an Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ grade to the top 10% of the scores, a Ã¢â¬Å"BÃ¢â¬ grade to the next 10% of the scores, a Ã¢â¬Å"CÃ¢â¬ grade to the next 10% of the scores, a Ã¢â¬Å"DÃ¢â¬ grade to the next 10% of the scores, and an Ã¢â¬Å"FÃ¢â¬ grade to all scores below the 60th percentile of this distribution. For each possible letter grade, find the lowest acceptable score within the established range. 4. The weekly demand for General Motors car sales follows a normal distribution with a mean of 40,000 cars and a standard deviation of 12,000 cars. a. There is a 5% chance that GM will sell more than what number of cars during the next week? b. What is the probability that GM will sell between 20 and 23 thousand cars during the next week? 5. A department store is interested in the average balance that is carried on its storeÃ¢â¬â¢s credit card. A sample of 40 accounts reveals an average balance of $1,250 and a standard deviation of $350. a. Find a 95% confidence interval for the mean account balance on this storeÃ¢â¬â¢s credit card. b. What sample size would be needed to ensure that we could estimate the true mean account balance and have only 5 chances in 100 of being off by more than $100? 6. A marketing research consultant hired by Coca-Cola is interested in determining the proportion of customers who favor Coke over other soft drinks. A random sample of 400 consumers was selected from the market under investigation and showed that 53% favored Coca-Cola over other brands. a. Compute a 95% confidence interval for the true proportion of people who favor Coke. Do the results of this poll convince you that a majority of people favor Coke? b. Suppose 2,000 (not 400) people were polled and 53% favored Coke. Would you now be convinced that a majority of people favor Coke? 7. BatCo (The Battery Company) produces your typical consumer battery. The company claims that their batteries last at least 100 hours, on average. Your experience with the BatCo battery has been somewhat different, so you decide to conduct a test to see if the companies claim is true. You believe that the mean life is actually less than the 100 hours BatCo claims. You decide to collect data on the average battery life (in hours) of a random sample and the information related to the hypothesis test is presented below. Use this information to answer the following questions. a. You believe that the mean life is actually less than 100 hours, should you conduct a one-tailed or a two-tailed hypothesis test? State your alternative hypothesis. b. If you use a 5% significance level, would you conclude that the mean life of the batteries is typically more than 100 hours? State the rejection region and calculate the test statistic. c. If you were to use a 1% significance level in this case, would you conclude that the mean life of the batteries is typically more than 100 hours? Explain your answer. 8. Q-Mart is interested in comparing customer who used it own charge card with those who use other types of credit cards. Q-Mart would like to know if customers who use the Q-Mart card spend more money per visit, on average, than customers who use some other type of credit card. They have collected information on a random sample of 38 charge customers and the data is presented below. On average, the person using a Q-Mart card spends $192.81 per visit and customers using another type of card spend $104.47 per visit. Use the information below to answer the following questions. a. Given the information above, what is [pic] and [pic] for this comparison? Also, does this represent a one-tailed or a two-tailed test? Explain your answer. b. Using a 1% level of significance, is there sufficient evidence for Q-Mart to conclude that customers who use the Q-Mart card charge, on average, more than those who use another charge card? Explain your answer. 9. Suppose that you were asked to test H0: Ã ¼ = 10 versus Ha: Ã ¼ 10 at the [pic] = 0.05 significance level and with a sample of size n = 10. Furthermore, suppose that you observed values of the sample mean and sample standard deviation and concluded that H0 be rejected. Is it true that you might fail to reject H0 if you were to observe the same values of the sample mean and standard deviation from a sample with n 10? Why or why not? 10. Stock-market analysts are keenly interested in determining what factors influence the price of a stock. After some examination, a statistician hypothesized that a stock price (Y in $) would be affected by its quarterly dividends (X1 in $), its price/earnings ratio (X2), and the interest rate of treasury bills (X3 in %). The values of the relevant variables were observed for a period of 40 quarters. When the data were run on STATGRAPHICS PLUS, the accompanying printout was created.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Two detective stories Essay I am going to compare and contrast two short stories, written by two different authors but they are both detective stories. The two stories were written in different times by two very different people.Ã Sara Paretsky, the author of Three-Dot Po, was born in the middle of the twentieth century and is still alive and writing books today. She has a good education; she has a degree in Political science, a PhD in history and has received an MBA from the University of Chicago. She has published 11 novels in several languages, 9 short stories, and 6 essays and has received numerous awards for her writing. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the author of The Speckled Band, was born in 1859 and died in 1930. He wrote in a very different time and society to the ones that Sara Paretsky writes in. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle qualified as a doctor and practised medicine, he was well educated and respected in his profession, however he preferred to write mystery stories. He was the first writer in the nineteenth century to have the same characters in his stories but different stories each week.Ã Both writers were/are respected in their fields of work and although they both had different backgrounds they had at least one thing in common, they both wrote murder mysteries that included the same characters but different stories in each edition. Both stories were aimed at the same audience range, however The speckled band may appear slightly more to an adult audience. Both Three-Dot Po and The speckled band are structured in the same way, they are both short stories. Although they both have a different under lying structure. Three-Dot Po is a methodical story and takes you step by step through what the character is going through, whereas The speckled band builds up to a climax and leaves you puzzled and confused up until the end. Each story has a different narrator in Three-Dot Po it is the detective herself, Vic Warshawski. Her character is an ex lawyer turned private detective, this means she has alot of experience in solving crimes. The narrator in the speckled band is Dr Watson, Sherlock Holmess sidekick. The tone in Three-Dot Po is quite relaxed and informal, not as dramatic as the speckled band. The tone of the speckled band is serious, dramatic and is ironic as the detective kills the murderer. The language of each story supports the tone; for example the language in The speckled band is formal, descriptive and old fashioned. Which supports the serious tone of the story. Also the language used in Three-Dot Po is informal, descriptive, modern and in first person. This also supports the informal tone of the story. The story is told, well and with the added use of imagery this helps to portray the meaning and thought behind the story. The use of imagery in Three-Dot Po is very good especially with the description of the scenery snow blowing across in fine pelting particles like a desert storm. The use of imagery is likewise very stereotypical of a methodical story. In each story the crime committed is a murder, but these murders are told in different formats. The murder in Three-Dot Po was a story killing and the murder in the speckled band was a mystery killing. There is another contrast in the murders, in Three-Dot Po it is a human being that killed the victim whereas in the speckled band it is a snake that commits the actual murders. There is yet another contrast in the stories to do with the murders and that is when it comes to the suspects. There is only one real suspect in Three-Dot Po and that is the victims boyfriend, Jonathan Michaels. Whereas in The speckled band there seem to be many suspects which include Dr Roylett, the gypsies and the cheetah and the baboon. There are many clues in each story, in Three-Dot Po there is an empty film tube left by the body, the sighting of the man in the ski mask, the phone call made to the victim shortly before she died and the break in at the flat. However in The speckled band the clues are much more suspicious and thought provoking. There is the fact that The character Helen Stone had to change rooms for a non-existent reason, the strange animals that roam around (the cheetah and baboon), her bad was nailed to the floor, the dummy bell pull, the whistling at night, the safe, milk and lead in the Doctors room, the last words spoken by the victim and the bars on the windows. All of these things are rather bizarre and therefore conclude to a twisted web of deceit. An additional contrast between the two stories is the detectives and sidekicks themselves. The detective in Three-Dot Po is a woman who is friendly, brave and not self disciplined. Whereas the detective in The speckled band is a self disciplined, inquisitive, observant, dedicated, arrogant and very clever man. The sidekicks are equally different; the sidekick in Three-Dot Po is Three-Dot Po, a dog. He is very determined, devoted and brave. He is also a useful warning system, e.g. when the burglar breaks in. However the sidekick in The speckled band is Dr Watson, who is also the narrator, he, unlike Three-Dot Po is a human but he has dog like qualities. He is faithful, respectful, in awe of Holmes and willing to help. The penultimate contrast in these stories is in the ending. Three-Dot Po has a happy ending; the wrong is put right however it isnt a conclusive ending, as we dont find out what happens to the characters after the event. It is also very predictable and quite cheesy. The ending in The speckled band is the opposite, the way in which the story is told makes it so that the ending is totally unpredictable and conclusive. Holmes doesnt seem to care that Dr Roylett is dead and acts with a clean conscience. The final contrast is with the settings of the stories. Three-Dot Po is set in America in Michigan City in the twentieth century and The speckled band is set in a rural part of London, England. This play was written in 1883. The final similarity between these two stories is that both of the stories are relevant to the times in which they were written. For example in 1883 there wouldnt have been motorised transport and this is picked up on when Sherlock refers to the use of a dog-cart. Another example is in Three-Dot Po, the murderer is a Spanish drug dealer, this is typical of the twentieth century. The use of drugs is common and the fact that a drug dealer is involved in a murder is not a great shock to anyone.Ã These two stories have many contrasts but they also have many similarities, they are both great stories for there times and were written by great-accomplished writers.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Implications Of Cognitive Learning Styles On Training Design Education Essay Cognitive Styles are described as individual differences in modes of organizing and processing information in memory. Often, cognitive styles are described as the link between personality and cognition (Sternberg and Grigorenko, 1997) or a missing piece in understanding self (Riding and Rayner, 1998). Over thirty different style labels are classified into two style families, the Wholist-analytic (WA) and the Verbalizer-Imager (VA) dimensions. These dimensions of cognitive styles are fundamental as they develop early in life and are pervasive as they affect social behavior, decision making and learning behavior (Sadler-Smith and Riding, 2000). The general idea while designing learning materials and trainings is that all individuals learn in a similar manner. Hence learning materials and trainings, while designing, are standardized and fail to accommodate cognitive styles and learning styles in the design process. Moreover, training design methodologies although acknowledge learning styles, but they lack the theoretical and empirical bases to accommodate the important role played by cognitive styles in determining learning performance. The assumption that all individuals learn in a similar manner ignores individual differences in cognitive styles. Streufert and Nogami (1989), and Hayes and Allinson (1994) suggested that one of the causes for differences in performance of individuals across a variety of organizations is the effect of cognitive style. Therefore, the research question the paper attempts to answer is: Cognitive styles play an important role in determining the learning performance of trainees. Hence designers of trainings and learning materials need to accommodate cognitive style in training design methodologies in order to improve the effectiveness of trainings. Research proves that accommodating individual differences in cognitive styles has a beneficial effect on learning performance. The research by Hayes and Allinson (1996) also argues that cognitive style may be an important factor in determining how individuals operate at each stage of the learning cycle. Literature Review Conventional training design methodologies fail to acknowledge the important role played by cognitive style in determining learning performance. Hence, it is necessary to consider the relationship between learning performance, learning strategies and cognitive style. It is also necessary to suggest ways in which human resource development practitioners may accommodate individual differences in style such that the effectiveness of training and development interventions may be improved (Riding and Sadler-Smith, 1997). Kim Buch and Susan Bartley (2002) investigate the relationship between learning style and preference for training delivery mode. The study explores the topic by using the Kolb Learning Style Instrument to measure training delivery mode preference. The results showed a relationship between the two variables depicting that convergers showed a stronger preference for computer-based delivery and assimilators showed a stronger preference for print-based delivery. The results also revealed an overall preference for classroom-based delivery for adults on the study, regardless of their learning styles. The article also discusses the implications of these results for training design and delivery, thereby implicating the importance of learning styles in the design process of trainings. The type of learning style is not significantly effective on the students achievement and learning performance in different learning environments (Yilmaz-Soylu and Akkoyunlu, 2002). The study investigates the effects of learning styles on students achievement and learning performance in different learning environments designed according to principles of Generative Theory of Multimedia Learning. The inferences were made by studying a study group in three different learning environments at different times. The research made use of two different learning instruments including a pre-post test experimental method to identify students achievement score and Kolbs Learning Style Inventory to measure students learning styles. The design and application of distance learning is of central concern to many educators. Research has been conducted from a variety of perspectives in this area. The paper by Yuliang Liu and Dean Ginther (1999) explores ways to adapt the design of distance education to students cognitive styles. The paper provides an overview of the construct of cognitive styles along with the major dimensions and characteristics of cognitive styles. The researchers also present some applications of cognitive styles to the design of distance education. The research by Steven John Simon (2000) indicates that trainees whose learning style matches training methodology are more successful in training outcomes, have higher computing satisfaction, and have higher levels of computer use. The study examines the relationship of learning style and training method to computer satisfaction and computer use. The researcher uses structural equation modeling to examine and understand the results of a field experiment to determine the optimum method of training beginner computer users, and to assess the role of learning styles in computing system training. Trainees learning style was determined using Kolbs Learning Styles Inventory. The study by John Hayes and Christopher W. Allinson (1997) reviews the research on the interaction effect of learning style and the learning style orientation of the learning environment on learning outcomes, and discusses how the findings from educational research can improve training and development practice. The paper attempts to indicate the effect of cognitive learning styles on training and development practice and discusses the need for more research in work settings and the dearth of valid and reliable measures of cognitive learning style. The presence of a valid and reliable measure of cognitive learning style can be easily administered to employees and is considered as a factor which may have inhibited research in this area. Additionally, the advantages and disadvantages of a number of measures that could be used in work settings are also discussed in the paper. Christopher W. Allinson and Lucinda Willis (2010) examine the range of business learning styles in a population consistency of American and international business students. The research uses the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey to determine learning styles in both working and learning environments. Research findings indicate that learning styles are uniquely related to geographic locations. Research suggests that individuals differ in the way they process information due to their learner characteristics. It also suggests the presence of 11 dimensions of learner characteristics. Lynna J. Ausburn and Floyd B. Ausburn (1978) use a fresh approach to instructional design and emphasize the importance of cognitive style as a learner characteristic. Noting that cognitive styles are stable, resistant to change by training and bear little relation to general ability, the authors advocate assisting the learner whose information processing pattern is not compatible with the task to be learned by involving explicit alteration of the task requirement with which the learner is having difficulty. Therefore, the study proposes to design the training so as to accommodate learning styles by a three-step instructional design plan with which to move beyond individual instruction to individualized instruction. Such a plan would allow for differences in learners to not result in differences i n learning. In order to optimize individual performance, managers and human resource practitioners have a crucial role to play and a number of human resource interventions are required to facilitate a versatility of style at both the individual and the organizational levels (Sadler-Smith and Beryl Badgera, 1998). The research describes cognitive style as an important determinant of individual behavior and considers it imperative to organizational learning and the innovation process. The researchers argue that it is a fundamental determinant of individual and organizational behavior and manifests itself in individual workplace actions and in organizational systems, processes and routines. The paper presents a number of propositions which raise some implications for research into cognitive styles and its impact upon innovation and organizational learning and training. The study by Eugene Sadler-Smith (1996) argues that learning style along with learning preferences and cognitive styles may be included under the term personal style. The paper reviews each aspect of the personal style framework and considers its relationship to learning performance at the reaction, learning, behavior and results level. It also describes the instruments which may be used for profiling personal style and suggests that personal style profiling is of value to human resource development practitioners as it may help them identify their own styles, become aware of any bias or imbalance in the training and learning methods which they employ and design and develop learning events which accommodate or acknowledge the personal styles of the learners. Eugene Sadler-Smith (1996) explores ways in which individual differences between learners regarding their cognitive styles (Riding, 1991) and experiential learning model (Kolb, 1984 and Honey and Mumford, 1986, 1992) may be accommodated while designing self-instructional learning materials. The study provides suggestions to develop balanced instructional materials that acknowledge each stage of the learning cycle and individual differences between learners in terms of verbalizer-imager (VI) and wholist-analytical (WA) dimensions of cognitive style. It also reviews the learning cycle, the associated learning styles (Kolb, 1984; Honey and Mumford, 1986, 1992) and the verbalizer-imager/wholist-analytical model of cognitive style (Riding, 1991) to make suggestions. The research argues that the learning cycle notions suggested by Kolb and Honey and Mumford and the cognitive style model by Riding may provide useful guidelines for accommodating individual differences between learners while designing self-instructional materials which may enable; learning difficulties to be anticipated and addressed, the effectiveness and efficiency of self-instruction to be improved, learners to become aware of the learning process enabling them to be self-reliant and autonomous, and learners and designers to adopt a whole-brain approach. Implications of cognitive style for management practice especially while designing and delivering trainings is studied by John Hayes and Christopher W. Allinson (1994). The paper identifies some important dimensions of cognitive style, addresses semantic issues associated with the nature of cognitive style and examines ways in which styles can be classified. Research regarding learning styles is emerging from a variety of disciplines and is conducted in domains outside psychology from which many of the central concepts and theories originate. These domains primarily include medical and health care training, management, industry, vocational training and education. Moreover, the applications of these concepts are very broad due to the importance of learning in every field and to every aspect of life. However, the topic has become fragmented and disparate due to the varied aims of the research and the diversity of disciplines and domains in which the research is conducted. Therefore, this has rendered the topic to be complex and difficult to comprehend and assimilate. Hence, it is necessary to present an account of the central themes and issues surrounding learning styles and to consider the instruments available for the measurement of style. The paper by Simon Cassidy (2004) reviews the theories, models and measures related to learning sty les. The study attempts to clarify common areas of ambiguity in particular issues surrounding measurement and appropriate instruments. It also aims to bring together necessary components of the area so as to allow for a broader appreciation of learning styles and to inform readers regarding possible tools for measurement of learning styles. The paper anticipates promoting research in the field by making it more accessible to new practitioners and researchers and by developing a greater appreciation for the area across disciplines. The paper by Samuel Messick (1984) examines characteristic features of cognitive styles and the ways in which learning styles differ from one another. These distinctive characteristics are integrated to form a framework that serves to define cognitive styles in contrast not only to abilities but to other types of stylistic variables. The paper also discusses implications of cognitive styles in terms of improving instructional methods, enriching teacher behavior and conceptions, enhancing student learning and thinking strategies, expanding guidance and vocational decision making, broadening educational goals and outcomes and tuning the stylistic demands of educational environments. The author also addresses the reasons why cognitive styles have educational impact and why such educational benefits are difficult to realize. The study by Eugene Sadler-Smith (2001) explores the construct validity of learning style as defined in the Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) and its relationship with cognitive styles as measured by using the Cognitive Styles Analysis (CSA) by R. Riding (1994). The study also examines the relationship between styles and learning preferences and suggests that the LSI assesses two dimensions as defined by Kolb (comprehension and transformation) and that the learning style and cognitive styles are independent and the relationship between style and preference is mediated by gender. Adrian Furnham (1991) reports three studies concerned with personality correlates of learning styles. The Eyesenckian dimensions of Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism and Lie correlated with three different measures of learning style; the Honey and Mumford (1982) Learning Style Questionnaire (LSQ), the Whetten and Cameron (1984) Cognitive Style Instrument (CSI); and the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (LSI). Personality measures, especially extraversion and psychoticism were strongly correlated with learning/cognitive styles in each case. The study also discusses the implications for assessing learning and cognitive styles in terms of the incremental validity of using learning style instruments. The effect of text-plus-text versus text-plus-picture computer presentation conditions and the students cognitive styles on the learning performance is investigated in the paper by R. Riding and G. Douglas (1993). For the study, fifty nine 15-16 year old students in a secondary school were randomly assigned within sexes to one of the conditions. In the text-plus-text condition, the learning material content described the working of car brake systems while the text-plus-picture condition consisted of text with additional pictorial information. The students were given a post-test overall learning performance along with the Cognitive Styles Analysis (CSA) (Riding, 1991) which measures an individuals position on two cognitive style dimensions; Verbal-Imagery and Wholist-Analytic. The study concluded that the Verbal-Imagery cognitive style and presentation condition interacted in their effect on overall learning performance. In the text-plus-picture condition, Imagers were superior to Ver balizers, while in the text-plus-text condition the Verbalizers did better than Imagers. The authors also observed that Imagers used more diagrams to illustrate their answers than Verbalizers. The study also discusses the results in terms of their implications for instruction. Elizabeth R. Peterson, Ian J. Deary and Elizabeth J. Austin (2003) assess and examine the reliability of Ridings Cognitive Styles Analysis test (CSA) by comparing the performance on the original CSA test and a new parallel version. Both test versions were completed twice by 50 participants, however, the second time the test was completed approximately a week later. The reliability of the test was measured using parallel forms, test-re-test and split half analysis. Correlations of the Verbal-Imagery (VI) and Wholist-analytic (WA) ratios from both test versions were low. However, when the CSA and parallel form data were combined, the split-half analysis of the Wholist-Analytic (WA) style ratio was stable but the Verbal-Imagery (VI) style ratio remained unreliable. Management education and development practitioners should recognize that individuals learning preferences are likely to vary as a result of cognitive style and that this diversity should be acknowledged and accommodated by practitioners through the use of a variety of instructional methods. Researchers also argue that management education and development will benefit from adopting a variety of modes of presentation which will enable individuals to process information in their habitual modes (i.e. visual or verbal) and using instructional devices (overviews, summaries and different types of advance organizers) which compensate for the weaknesses of individuals habitual modes of organizing and structuring information in memory. In order to encourage self-awareness and hence facilitate learning and strategy development, management education and development practitioners should use the notion of style and its assessment. Therefore, it is now imperative to fully utilize the notion of styl e in the education and development of managers in the 21st century. The study by Eugene Sadler-Smith and Richard Riding (2000) aims to consider the implications of the Wholist-Analytic (WA) and Verbalizer-Imager (VI) dimensions of cognitive style for management education and development. The study presents and examines that at a practical level, the style may exert an influence over learning behavior in a number of ways; by interacting with the mode or structure of the presentation of information; by influencing an individuals propensity to engage in particular types of learning behavior (learning preferences) or through using an awareness of individuals personal styles as a basis for meta-cognitive awareness (learning strategy development). The paper by Eugene Sadler-Smith and Peter J. Smith (2004) presents strategies for accommodating individuals styles and preferences in flexible learning programs. The paper argues that considerable growth and development has taken place in the use of flexible methods of delivery for workplace learning and development. However, while designing programs for flexible learning, the designers often assume that learners exhibit uniformity in their ability to process and organize information (cognitive style), in their tendency towards particular learning formats and media (instructional preferences) and the conscious actions that learners employ to deal with the demands of specific learning situations (learning strategies). Due to such assumptions, the designers of learning materials and trainings may risk ignoring important aspects of individual differences in styles, preferences and strategies. The paper aims to consider some aspects of individual difference that are significant to the d elivery of flexible learning in the workplace, identify some of the challenges that may raise for instructional designers and learning facilitators based on differences in styles and preferences between individuals and suggest ways to accommodate and acknowledge individual differences in styles and preferences in the models of flexible learning design and delivery through the use of a range of instructional design, learning and support strategies. The paper by Pat Burke Guild (2001) examines the effects of diversity, learning styles and culture on the learning performance of learners. The author argues that educators do not believe that all learners learn in the same manner, yet, educators throughout the world continue to treat all learners alike while acknowledging diversity. Educators, today, are aware that students learn in different ways. Theories and extensive research illustrate learning differences among individuals. Learners bring their own individual approach, talents and interests to the learning situation in terms of learning styles, cognitive styles or multiple intelligences. Moreover, individual learners culture, family background and socioeconomic level also affect the learning process. Hence, these theories and principles have an important effect on the opportunities for success for every student in schools. The paper by Teng Pei-Shan, DengchuanCai and Yao-Jen Fan (2009) investigates the relationship between design thinking and design performance in different types of cognition. Designers have the responsibility to understand and care about users cognitive habit to distinguish the difference between thinking and performance in different cognitive styles. The study uses the Cognitive Style Index (CSI) and classifies it into two groups; Analysis and Intuition. The research uses experience and questionnaire methods to test two groups with different cognitive styles, to show the difference of design process performance in thinking and sketch ability while executing the same mission. The study uses 134 design major students. The primary results of the study concluded for the design process that; people in intuition group prefer image thinking and those in analysis group prefer word thinking; people in intuition group have better performance than those in an analysis group. Finally, cognitive style can be applied to design education and work such that educators respect the learning modes of different users and utilize proper ways to gain better learning performance. The paper by James B. Wells, Benjamin H. Layne and Derek Allen (1991) examines the appropriateness and applicability of multimedia instructional strategy in the management development training. The paper also reveals significant differences in the learning styles of supervisors, middle managers and upper managers. It also provides some reasons for the existence of learning style differences and suggests training media and instructional strategies most suited for the dominant learning style of each level of management. The study presents various methodologies and media approaches that can be planned to meet the needs of the training participants. The paper by John Hayes and Christopher W. Allinson (1998) reviews the implications of cognitive styles on the theory and practice of individual and collective learning in organizations. The study evaluates and asses aspects of two contrasting literatures from adjacent fields of individual and organizational learning. The study focuses on the extent to which the individual level construct of cognitive style can be applied covertly to aid understanding at the organizational as well as at the individual level. The paper identifies nine categories of intervention and also focuses on ways in which consideration of cognitive style can improve the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve individual and organizational performance. The paper by David Cook (2005) studies the effects of learning and cognitive styles in web-based learning and presents application of cognitive and learning styles in web-based learning. Web-based learning can reach large, heterogeneous audiences and adaptation to cognitive and learning styles increases its effectiveness. The study uses cognitive and learning style constructs to predict relationships between cognitive and learning styles and the web-based learning. The study suggests that teachers and educators develop web-based learning activities that consider assessing and adapting to accommodate learners defined by the Wholist-Analytic (WA) and active reflective constructs.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Getting Through College Ã¢â¬Å"When in doubt eat fruit.Ã¢â¬ That is the advice Francesca Haller gives her daughter, Nicole, any time Nicole is hungry and isnÃ¢â¬â¢t sure what she wants. Nicole is a sophomore American Sign Language major at Northeastern University. The anticipation of attending college floods teenagers with numerous thoughts. Living on their own, going to class when they please, staying out as late as they want, and surviving on food the dining hall provides or what they buy at the grocery store. More free time, or lack there of, may bring students spinning downwards towards bad eating habits and malnutrition. Rolling out of bed five minutes before class means grabbing a coffee on the way. Too much homework or a big project might mean skipping a healthy dinner and cooking some Ramen noodles or snacking on chips all night. This is where the Ã¢â¬Å"convenience foodsÃ¢â¬ come in which are factory made dishes or meals that only need to be heated up or need just one or two additional ingredients. For students who refuse to be part of the stereotype, or gain weight at all throughout their college years, skipping meals and dieting comes into play. Eating disorders can plague students as well. According to The Kellogg Report: the impact of nutrition, environment, and lifestyle on the health of Americans, without the more watchful eye of a parent, students with eating disorders may be more apt to go unnoticed for a longer period of time. Teresa Fung, an assistant professor in the Department of Nutrition at Simmons College has noticed trends in college studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ eating habits. Ã¢â¬Å"They have no time to eat, and nutrition is not a priority to them; therefore, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not paying attention to what they are eating. There is a small number of disordered eating, but not usually to the extent of eating disorders,Ã¢â¬ said Fung. Ã¢â¬Å"Also, the less-then-optimal healthy way of eating is also partly the result of not knowing that some foods look healthy, but they are not, and also the general lack of nutrition knowledge.Ã¢â¬ Boston Nutritionist, Jenna Hollenstein, has also seen many trends in college students, but said that they differ according to age, sex, education level, and much more. Ã¢â¬Å"For example, the Ã¢â¬Ëfreshman 15Ã¢â¬â¢ is a pretty well-known phenomenon but the tendency for newly married women and men to gain weight is lesser known. Young adults not living with parents or elders tend to eat fewer fruits and vegetables and are also likely to eat higher-fat diets,Ã¢â¬ Hollenstein said.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
What is happening in research? Ã ¨Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Many doctors and scientists are investigating the cause and cure of lupus. At medical centres worldwide (including Canada), research has led to improved tests and techniques for diagnosis and better methods for predicting flares. These allow doctors to start treatment sooner, which improves chances for success. As part of research, many centres collect and store patient information and statistics. The results of this data can help doctors and patients make better decisions about treatment of an increasingly wide range of symptoms. This, along with today's advances in technology, the greater awareness about lupus, and the promise of a cure, gives hope to all whose lives are touched by lupus. Lupus Lupus: The disease with 1000 faces! What is lupus? Ã ¨Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Lupus is a chronic disease with a variety of symptoms caused by inflammation in one or more parts of the body. It is estimated that it affects more than 50,000 Canadians. Lupus is not contagious and is not related to AIDS or cancer. It belongs in the family of diseases that includes rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, juvenile diabetes, and scleroderma. The most common type of lupus is SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus). It is a complex and baffling condition that can target any tissue or organ of the body, including skin, muscles, joints, blood and blood vessels, lungs, heart, kidneys, and the brain. There are other types of lupus which mainly affect the skin. A few individuals develop drug-induced lupus as a response to some medications used to treat other conditions. These symptoms disappear when the person stops taking the medication. Who gets lupus? Ã ¨Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Anyone can: women, men, children. Between the ages 15 and 45, eight times more women than men get lupus. In those under 15 and over 45, both sexes are affected equally. What causes lupus? Ã ¨Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã No one knows for sure. What we do know is that, in lupus, the immune system (the body's defense against viruses and bacteria) is unable to tell the difference between intruders and the body's own tissues. Trying to do its job, it attacks parts of the body, causing inflammation and creating the symptoms of lupus. Ã ¨Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Because it occurs most often in women of childbearing age, it seems ... ...ts. Sometimes, x-rays, ultrasound examination and biopsies of organ tissues are needed depending on the symptoms and the organs involved. The ANA test Ã ¨Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) test is a critical test in the diagnosis of lupus. A normal immune system makes antibodies to fight infection, but in those with lupus, the immune system makes antibodies against its own tissues. If you have lupus, you make an antibody directed against the nucleus of a cell that contains important cellular functional components such as DNA. Almost all systemic lupus patients receive a positive ANA test, but not all ANA positive tests point to a lupus diagnosis. This is a very important point. If you get a positive test result, it could be pointing to one of a number of autoimmune problems, or to no autoimmune problem at all. It could be without any clinical consequences. Because the results could mean a number of things, it is critical that a rheumatologist evaluate the test. Visible Signs and Symptoms of Discoid Lupus Skin Lesions and Scabbing Swelling of Extremities and Joints Scabbing and skin irritation of the ears Irritation and swelling on the face The End
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Language and culture are closely connected and inseparable, as a language idiom is the essence of the deposition of the fascinating history and culture. Because of geography, history, religion, customs and other aspects of life differences between Chinese and English Idioms carrying characteristics of the different cultures and cultural information, so English-Chinese Idioms often encounter many difficulties. From the geographical environment, historical background, customs and religious beliefs described four aspects of cultural differences between Britain and China on the impact of the formation of their respective idioms, and detailed description of English Idioms translation to deal with this cultural difference in several commonly used translation . Keywords: language; culture; cultural differences; Idioms Translation 1, English idioms and cultural differences reflected in the (A)Ã'Å½ The environmentÃ The natural environment is mankindÃ¢â¬â¢s survival and the basis for the development of different natural environment of the formation and development of national culture have different effects. Chinese people living in the vast expanse of fertile continent of East Asia, China since ancient times is a large agricultural country, the land in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives is vital. Therefore, there is a considerable portion of Chinese agriculture and land-related idioms. Such as Ã¢â¬Ëgood weatherÃ¢â¬ dead endÃ¢â¬ exterminationÃ¢â¬ big spendersÃ¢â¬â¢ and so on. Britain is an island surrounded by water. Maritime history, have been living in a world leader, so in English and will have a lot of water, fish, and marine-related idiom. Such as weak as water (fragile), drink like a fish (booze), to miss the boat (missed opportunities), all at sea (a loss). In the Chinese cultural atmosphere, the Ã¢â¬ËwindÃ¢â¬â¢ that is Ã¢â¬Ëspring windÃ¢â¬â¢, in the summer heat often associated with the Ku Shu, Ã¢â¬Ëscorch like fireÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËJiaoyangsihuoÃ¢â¬â¢ is often used to describe the summer term . The United Kingdom is located in the western hemisphere north temperate zone, is a marine climate, the report is that the message of spring westerly, the British poet ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËWest Wind SongÃ¢â¬â¢ (ode to the west wi nd) is the right spring Acura. EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s summer season is warm and pleasant, often with Ã¢â¬ËlovelyÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËmoderateÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËOKÃ¢â¬â¢ connected. Shakespeare in his sonnets in one compared to the summer of love, Shall I compare thee to asummerÃ¢â¬â¢s day? Thou are more lovely and more temperate. (B) The historical allusion From a certain point of view that language is a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural memory and precipitation, the large number of Chinese idioms are based on the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s history, economy, culture, traditions, habits, formed the basis, with a strong national cultural characteristics of and far-reaching social and historical origins, often can not be understood from the literal meaning and translation. Such as Ã¢â¬Ëmere copycatÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËMinglasunshanÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëlose the wife of another soldier offÃ¢â¬ Three Stooges, the top one wiseÃ¢â¬â¢ and so on. English idioms idioms come from the Ã¢â¬ËBibleÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Greek and Roman mythology, but also have their specific content, such as AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢heel (the only fatal weakness), meetoneÃ¢â¬â¢s waterloo (suffered a crushing defeat), a PandoraÃ¢â¬â¢s box (PandoraÃ¢â¬â¢s box), the Trojanhorse (Trojan horse from Greek mythology), arrow of Cupid ( , from Roman mythology). (C) The difference between practice In traditional Chinese culture, the dragon is a symbol of auspicious animals. In feudal society, imperial dragon is a symbol, authority and elegance. Thus, in Chinese and dragon-related idioms generally contain compliment. Such as Ã¢â¬ËDragon and Phoenix SucceedÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ChenglongkuaixuÃ¢â¬â¢ and so on. However, myths and legends of the West, dragon wings, it is a long, scaly body, dragging a long tail, fire-breathing from the mouth of animals, it is terrifying. Therefore, as Long as the murderous havoc Westerners thing, to be eliminated. In addition, the dog in Chinese is a humble animal. Chinese idioms with dog-related mostly derogatory: Ã¢â¬ËFox Peng Dog PartyÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËGoujitiaoqiangÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëa dogÃ¢â¬â¢s mouth spit no ivoryÃ¢â¬â¢ and so on, while in the Western English-speaking countries, dogs are considered manÃ¢â¬â¢s most loyal friend . English idiom In addition to the dogÃ¢â¬â¢s part due to the impact of other languages, which includes a derogatory sense, most of them are not meant to be derogatory. Idioms in English, often with the dogÃ¢â¬â¢s image to describe human behavior. If Youare a lucky dog (you are one lucky), Every dog has his day (mortal Jieyou proud days). In contrast, the Chinese people are very loved cats, with the Ã¢â¬ËChan MaoÃ¢â¬â¢ metaphor man gluttonous, often intimate components, while in Western culture, Ã¢â¬ËcatÃ¢â¬â¢ is used to metaphor Ã¢â¬Ëa malicious womanÃ¢â¬â¢. (Iv) religious beliefs. Every nation has its own religious beliefs and religious culture, its peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s values and lifestyle of the formation and language have a subtle impact. In the long history of several thousand years, the Chinese nation is predominantly Buddhist and Taoist. Therefore, there are many Chinese Buddhism, Taoism-related idioms, such as Ã¢â¬ËJiehuaxianfo Ã¢â¬ RoadÃ¢â¬ Bearing in mind thatÃ¢â¬â¢ and so on. In addition, the Chinese people still worship gods, such as Ã¢â¬Ëright and properÃ¢â¬ thank GodÃ¢â¬ Heaven always leaves people a way outÃ¢â¬â¢ and so on. Chinese emperors also claim to be Ã¢â¬Ëtrue sons of the dragonÃ¢â¬â¢. In the United Kingdom and other Western countries, the greatest impact of religion is Christianity. In the Western mind, God has a supreme supernatural power. There are also a number of English idioms with the God-related idioms. If God helps those who help themselves (God helps those who help themselves), Man proposes, God disposes (Man proposes, God disposes days). Curse a person is often said that God damn you, danger often said after the Thank God, or God bless you. Christian doctrine Ã¢â¬ËBibleÃ¢â¬â¢ has been regarded as a classic of Western culture. Many English idioms is precisely because of this. Such as the finger on the wall (writing on the wall), cast oneÃ¢â¬â¢s bread upon the waters (really do good, without asking for anything). From the above aspects, we can see the impact of culture on idiom far-reaching and extensive. To correctly understand the English language learners and successful conduct of Idioms Idioms translation, we must first English-Chinese have a deep understanding of both cultures. Second, the main method Idioms Translation Translation is the conversion between the two languages, while the close relationship between language and culture conversion request must be in the language of cultural conversion. In view of this, the translator can not be literally literal translation, we must better understand the culture behind the literal information, using the original understanding of the original language and cultural knowledge to their own understanding, based on in another language such as that of the target language for the kinds of transformation, for the reader to pass the original translation accurate information, press Ã¢â¬Ëfunctional equivalenceÃ¢â¬â¢ principle so that Ã¢â¬Ëthe reader to reflect the sameÃ¢â¬â¢. Therefore, the idioms translated the one hand, as far as possible with the original meaning of Ã¢â¬Ëthe most appropriate, the most natural reproduction of such words come outÃ¢â¬â¢, with NidaÃ¢â¬â¢s words, that is, Ã¢â¬ËThe best translation does no t sound like a translationÃ¢â¬â¢; the other On the one hand, but also make every effort to display the original cultural information on the translation readers to understand the cultural information contained in the original. Main methods are: reposted elsewhere in the paper for free Download Center http://www. hi138. com (A) Literal Translation. The so-called literal translation method, is not against the target language norms, and Lenovo are not under the conditions that caused the error in the translation to retain the original idiom metaphor, image and national, local features approach. It applies to some extent due to the use of a wide number of more of its literal meaning and metaphorical meaning has been widely accepted by the reader for the translation idioms. If a gentlemanÃ¢â¬â¢s agreement (a gentlemanÃ¢â¬â¢s agreement); armed to the teeth (armed to the teeth); to fish in troubled water (fish in troubled waters); paper tiger (paper tiger); (draw water in a bamboo basket). Literal translation of the advantage of being able to retain more complete image of the original idiom metaphor, ethnic style, color and language. However, if the interpreter too much or too literal translation properly, itÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to make the reader feel funny or ridiculous, even give rise to misunderstanding or error association. Such as: (Until all is over, ambition never dies. ), The Pig falsely accuse the Chinese (To put blame on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s victim.) Ã¢â¬ËYellowÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËThe PigÃ¢â¬â¢ and other words have an obvious cultural traits, if the literal translation, foreign readers will not understand why, only to Ã¢â¬Ëfunctional equivalenceÃ¢â¬â¢ approach interpreter to readers in the East and the West has caused and is willing to match feelings. (B) literal explanation France In order to preserve the cultural information contained in the original, it is more use of literal, rather than paraphrase, but because of language rooted in the cultural soil is different from literal translation is likely to be ambiguous and vague. In this case, only in conjunction with appropriate annotation in order to pass the original text of cultural information. For example, a Don Juan (Don Juan, which means Merry prodigal son), to carry coals to New castle (coal to Newcastle, means superfluous, Newcastle Ã¢â¬â a British coal Center), N. (show off oneÃ¢â¬â¢s proficiency with axe before L u Ban, the master carpenter), mere copycat (The ugly imitates the beautiful in such a destroyed way that the ugliness of the ugly becomes worse. ). (C) the equivalent ILL Method. Idioms right and others are reflected in three aspects, namely metaphor meaning, form and emotional metaphors. Some English Idioms and Chinese idioms, whether in content or in form or emotional, both relatively close to this time, idioms translated to equivalent ILL method can be used, or apply the law synonymous idiom. This approach not only to retain the image of the source language, style, consistent with the target language the language of the structure and habits, allowing the reader to easily understand the text of the translation to convey meaning, and thus the smooth realization of cross-cultural exchange. Such as burn the boat (most drastic); greatminds think alike (Great minds think alike); turn a deaf ear to (ignored); a drop in the ocean (drop in the ocean). (D) translation method Translation method refers to the translation, to retain only the meaning of the original forms of expression rather than to retain the original method. When due to cultural differences can not be literally translated, nor synonymous idioms can be borrowed, together with the explanatory text then would lose the essence of the characteristics of idioms, it is best to avoid their cultural background and its meaning can be translated. If a skeleton in the cupboard (family scandal), driven to revolt (be forced to do something), (frankly speaking), volunteered (to volunteer oneÃ¢â¬â¢s service). Zhang Ling: Cultural differences and Idioms translation of this approach also applies to those using concrete and plain metaphor to illustrate the more abstract reasoning, and language vivid and witty tag line. Such as the Ã¢â¬Ëdonkey to see libretto Ã¢â¬â wait and seeÃ¢â¬â¢ can be translatedÃ as wait and see, Ã¢â¬Ëdog bites Lu Tung-pin, did not know good peopleÃ¢â¬â¢ can be translated to snap and snarl at a kind hearted man. 3, Conclusion English and each has its own cultural imprint colors and cultures between the two there is a large cultural differences. The impact of culture on idiom is multifaceted, non-English-Chinese translation of idioms is not. While the translation of idioms, especially those rich in cultural information, Idioms, and there is no fixed pattern in the end that the method should be adopted according to the context of flexible options. In addition, the process of translation the translator must not only consider the language of conversion, but also to enhance cultural awareness, from the standpoint of cross-cultural communication, using an appropriate mode of translation, try to eliminate the cross-cultural communication caused by cultural differences communication barriers, to achieve an accurate description of the purpose of a foreign culture. References:  Chen Ding-an. English Rhetoric and Translation [M]. Hong Kong: Commercial Press, 1996.  Ping-hong, Zhang Guoyang. English Idioms and Anglo-American culture, [M]. Beijing: Foreign Language Education and Research Press, 1999.  Hu Wenzhong. Introduction to Intercultural Communication [M]. Beijing: Foreign Language Education and Research Press, 1999.  Fang dream. Translation New Theory and Practice [M]. Qingdao: Qingdao Publishing House, 1999.  FENG Qing-hua. Practical Translation (update) [M]. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 2002.  Sun Hui-jun, ZHENG Qing-Zhu. Translation studies in the cultural shift [J]. Chinese translation, 2000, (05). Reposted elsewhere in the Research Papers Download http://www. hi138. com.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Over the past years we have seen how computers are becoming more and more advance, challenging the abilities of the human brain. We have seen computers doing complex assignments like launching of a rocket or analysis from outer space. But the human brain is responsible for, thought, feelings, creativity, and other qualities that make us humans. So the brain has to be more complex and more complete than any computer. Besides if the brain created the computer, the computer cannot be better than the brain.There are many differences between the human brain and the computer, for example, the capacity to learn new things. Even the most advance computer can never learn like a human does. While we might be able to install new information onto a computer it can never learn new material by itself. Also computers are limited to what they Ã¢â¬Å"learnÃ¢â¬ , depending on the memory left or space in the hard disk not like the human brain which is constantly learning everyday.Computers can neithe r make judgments on what they are Ã¢â¬Å"learningÃ¢â¬ or disagree with the new material. They must accept into their memory what itÃ¢â¬â¢s being programmed onto them. Besides everything that is found in a computer is based on what the human brain has acquired though experience. Another difference between the human brain and the computer is, the creativity of the human brain. For instance humans can create art, act in plays, or write stories and songs but computers can only help us in these activities not come up with them.While computers can help us solve math problems and find answers to certain questions it can never think of new solutions until they have been programmed into them. Furthermore computers cannot create new games or produce anything they desire like humans. In fact, the human brain is the one who comes up with new ideas or theories not taught before. But in a computer, everything that is there has being taught out by the human brain. Although the computer brain and the human brain have many differences they also have a couple similarities.Both can increase their memory storage capacity. Computer memory grows by adding computer chips. Memories in the brain grow by stronger synaptic connections. Both computers and brain have repair and Ã¢â¬Å"backupÃ¢â¬ systems. The brain has Ã¢â¬Å"built-in back up systemsÃ¢â¬ in some cases. If one pathway in the brain is damaged, there is often another pathway that will take over this function of the damaged pathway. Both can degrade. Computers break down and brain cells deteriorate. Like all machinery, computers break down with time.Brains also deteriorate with age, losing their functions and slowing down because of lower counts of chemicals and hormones. Both are used for storage of information, to process information and to run tasks. In terms of the functions, both are used for mathematical calculations, carrying out complex algorithms and to storing of crucial information. Counting all the simil arities and differences of the brain and the computer brain, you would now see that the computer and the brain do have somethings in common, but in many more ways they are actually more different than they are similar.